type modifier in C++

Here we will discuss the following,

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C++ modifier

Means- to modify. We use the modifier in C++ with the built-in data-type (except void). using a modifier, we can modify the property of a data-type, for example, we can increase the size of a variable, range or determine a variable which type of input will be store (positive or negative) by the end-user,

why we use modifier in C++?

It can be understood in such a way that the information given by the user is more than the size of the variable size In this situation, the variable can not hold that information, in that case, the modifier can be used with that data-type.

Let’s see in other words,

For example, using modifier in C++ with int data type, we can store large form of a number (maybe mobile no) or define a condition where we need to store the only positive value in a variable e.g. a student’s roll-no or age always a positive types value. so we can use modifier with them.

here is the syntax, to declare a modifier,


modifier-type data-type variable-name;

where data-type can be of int, float, and char types and variable-name is an identifier.

Type of modifier in C++

The modifier in C++ are following type,

  • signed
  • unsigned
  • long
  • short

before proceeding modifier will reserve the space in the memory as follows,

signed in C++

This type of modifier used to store both negative and positive values. By default, an int data type is a signed type modifier which stores both types of value positive and negative.


signed int variable-name;


signed variable-name;

such as,

signed int a = 5, b = -10;
signed x = 3, y = 2;

Let’s try with an example,

Example of signed in C++

here we will go with int data-type, In the below Program we perform the subtraction operation with two number.

using namespace std;

 int main()
     int num1 = 5, num2 = 6
     signed int sum;
     sum = num1 - num2;

     cout<<"Total : "<<sum;
   return 0;


Total: -1


         as you can see in the above Program, we subtract  num1 from  num2 means greater number –  smaller number so the result will be in a negative form which is store in a variable sum, a signed type modifier. but we already say int type of data-type a signed type modifier so,

int sum;

also, work.

unsigned in C++

By using it with a data-type, we can store only positive values in a variable. char data-type by default is an unsigned type modifier.


unsigned int variable-name;
unsigned char variable-name;


unsigned int a = 5; // possible
unsigned int b = -10;// not possible, garbage value printed

Let’s try in Program,

Example of unsigned in C++

//header files

 int main()
     int num1 = 5, num2 = 6
     signed int sum;
     sum = num1 - num2;

     cout<<"Total : "<<sum;



Total: 43892


    a garbage value is printed because here, we declare an int data-type a signed type modifier,  but when we replace 8th statement with the following statement

sum = num2 - num1;

than OUTPUT will be as follows,


because the result is in a positive form now.

long in C++

using this modifier you can extend the size of the variable. It is used only with the int and bouble.


long int variable-name;

same as

long variable-name;

In general, the size of an int data type is 2 byte but long type modifier with int then long int size will be 4 bytes. long type modifier is used to store a large value.

Example of long in C++

//header files

 int main()
     int x = 123456789101;
     long y =123456789101;
     cout<<"x   : "<<x;
     cout<<"\ny : "<<y;


x : -23526357
y : 123456789101

short in C++

unlike the long type-modifier. using short type modifier with int data type decreases the range of int data-type size. short type- modifier  will be used with int data-type


short int variable-name;

modifiers can be used with each other such as

signed short int variable;
unsigned long int variable;

The size of a data-type is also changed from a modifier. which will as follows,

Type size in bytes Range
char 1 -128 to 127
signed char 1 0 to 127
unsigned char 1 -128 to 127
float 4 3.4E-38 to 3.4E+38
double 8 1.7E-to 1.7E+308
long double 10 3.4E-4932 to 1.1E+4932
int 2 -32768 to 32767
unsigned int 2 0 to 65535
signed int 2 -32768 to 32767
short int 2 -32768 to 32767
long int 4 -2147483648 to 2147483647


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