operator and their types in C++

Operator in C++ are following,

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C++ Operator

just like a symbol, just as we use the operator for mathematical work in the real world, we use the operator to perform the same task in a program. For Example,

A + B

where “+” is an operator and A, B are operand in the Programming word we can say variables.

In the programming world, these operators are divided into different categories, also in C++.  C ++ offers a different type of operators. Some of which are described below.

Here we will discuss some important Operators with Example which are given,

A + B

Arithmetic Operator in C++

These are basic operators or default operator. These operators use two variable to perform a task. normally these are present in all programming languages.

These are described in the table below

Operator Name Example
= addition a + b
subtraction a – b
* multiplication a * b
/ division a / b
% modulus a % b

In the Program will be as follows,

जैसे –

int a= 3,b=4;
cout<<a+b; // print addition 7 
cout<<a-b; // print addition -1 
cout<<a*b; // print addition 12

Relational Operator in C++

In C++, adding a single operator or adding two different types of operator, makes a third types operator is called Relational Operator. These operators in C++ are used to compare two variables in a single statement.

Operator Name Example
< Less than a < b
<= Less than equal to a <=b
> Greater than a > b
>= Greater than and equal to a >= b
== Equal to a == b
!= Not equal to a != b

relation operators will be used with the control statement. such as,

In the following a=3,b=4,

with  “Less Than” Operator

less than operator

 if(a<b) // if 3 is greater than 4 than body of if will be execute.
  {
    // body of if
  }

“Not Equal To” Operator

if(a!= b) if a and b value is not equal than body of if will be execute.
 {
  // body of if
 }

“Equal To” operator

if(a== b) if a and b value is equal than body of if will be execute.
 {
     // body of if 
   }

यहाँ इसका program दिया गया है –

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int main()
  {
    int a = 3, b = 4 , c =4;
      
     if(a>b) {
         cout<<b<<" is greater than "<<a;
       }

     if(a!=b) {
         cout<<a<<" is Not Equal to "<<b;
      } 
     
     if(b==c) { 
         cout<<b<<" is Equal to "<<c; 
      } 
 
    return 0;
}

OUTPUT

4 is greater than 3
4 is Not Equal to 3
4 is Equal to 4

Logical Operator in C++

This type of operator used to compare more than one condition together. where the condition will be a Relational type Operator.

Operator Name Example
&& AND a > b && a != b
| | OR a >b || a != b
! NOT ! a

if variable a value is greater than variable b AND not equal to b than body of if will be executed,  means both conditions need to be true for executing body of loop such as,

int a = 5, b = 10 c = 20;

if(a < b && a > 0)  {
  //body of if
 }

if variable a value is greater than variable b but not equal to b than body of if will be executed, doesn’t matter if one condition is becomes false, means for executing body of loop only one condition need to be True.

if(a < b || a != b) {
  //body of if
 }

NOT operator can be used with a single variable,

int c = 0;

 if(!c) // if c value 0, than execute body of if
  {
   //body of if
  }

in the above codes ” ! “  operator behaves like an “ON” and “OFF” button where  ON is 0 and other different value will be OFF. Therefore, it is used mostly to execute a statement or function in the program.

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
 
 int main()
  {
    int a = 5, b = 10 ;
      
   if(a < b && a > 0) {
         cout<<a<<" is smaller than "<<b<<" but greater than 0;
       }
  
   if(a < b || a != b) {
         cout<<a<<" and "<<b<<"are not Equal";   
      } 
 
return 0;
}

OUTPUT

5 is smaller than 10 but greater than 0 
5 and 10 are Not Equal

Assignment operator in C++

assignment operator used to assign a value to a variables/operands in the Program, such as,

int a = 5;
float b = 0.5;

Here are some assignment operator in C++

Operator Name Description
= Assignment a = 5

assign values to operands

+= Addition and assign a += b  //   a =  a + b

add Left Side variable to the Right Side variable then assign the final result to the Left side variable.

-= subtraction and ssign a -= b      //   a =  a – b

same as above with different operation

/= division and assign a /= b    //   a =  a / b

same as  above with different operation

%= modulus and assign a %= b      //   a =  a % b

same as above with different operation

In the below Program, we used =, += and *= operator

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int main()
  {
    int count,sum=0,mul=1; //variable initialization using assignment operator 
 
      for(count = 1; count<=5;count++)
      { sum += count; // store result left side mul *= count; // } cout<<"Adition : "<<sum; // print variable sum value cout<<"\nMultiply: "<<mul<<endl; // print variable mul value return 0; }

OTUPUT

Addition: 15
Multiply: 120

just like other operators [ -=, %=, /=] will be used.

Special Operator in C++

This is not a different category operator, but it is a combination of two different or similar operators which are used in different operations.

Here are some special Operator in C++,

Operator Name Description
# Pound sign indicates pre-processor directive.
?: Conditional or ternary Operator used in if-else statement.
++ increment increase value one by one
decrement decrease value one by one
& reference operator using reference variable
* de-reference operator To store the address of a variables
sizeof() sizeof operator To find the size of a data-type or a variable
, comma operator For multiple variable,   initialization
:: scope resolution operator To change the scope of a variable and for the outline-definition of their function members in class and structure.
. dot operator To access the members of a structure, union and class
-> arrow operator To access the members of a structure and class using pointer
new new operator for dynamic memory allocation
delete delete operator for de-locate the memory
endl new line feed operator To insert a new line in the program. just like the keyboard has an enter button.

Here, some of these special operators used in the below program,

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int main()
  {
    int a =4; // assignment operator
 
    cout<<"Address of count variable : "<<&a<<"\n"; // reference operator
    cout<<"size of int data type(in byte): "<<sizeof(a); // sizeof operator
  return 0;
}

OUTPUT

Address of count variable : 0x8f87fff4
Size of int data type(int byte): 2

Example of scope resolution operator in C++

This operator is used in the global variable when a program has the same name, as the local variable and the global variable, in this case, we use the scope resolution operator ( :: ) to access the value of the global variable.

You can understand this from the program given below, where two same name num variables have been declared in global and local and the scope operator has been used to access the value of the global declared variable-

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
 
 int num=3; // global varaible
 
 int main()
   {
     int num = 6; //local variable
 
     cout<<"local num : "<<num<<endl; // for local variable
     cout<<"global ::num: "<<::num; // global variable
    return 0;
   }

OUTPUT

local num : 6
global ::num: 3

it is also used in to define member function definition outside in the class and structure. which is further explained in this tutorial.

Note:  C++ has also more operators.


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